Vitamin D deficiency and poor oral health during pregnancy tied to Preterm birth: Study

Published On 2021-10-19 03:30 GMT   |   Update On 2021-10-19 03:30 GMT

Preterm birth (PTB) and Low-Birth- Weight (LBW) with poor oral health and vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women, suggests a study published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine.

Periodontal disease is one of the more common inflammatory diseases in the adult population, with an incidence varying from 5 to 30%

Periodontal disease, initiated by bacterial biofilms, can cause the destruction of soft and hard periodontal tissues, consequently leading to tooth loss.

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The periodontal disease produces inflammatory mediators and microbial products that can enter the systemic circulation through the mouth and reach distant organs.

Vitamin D is a secosteroid that can be ascribed to steroid hormones if considering its biological effects on several tissues. Vitamin D might affect periodontal disease both through an effect on bone mineral density and through immunomodulatory effects.

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A group of researchers conducted a study to investigate this correlation in a cohort of pregnant women over 20 weeks of gestation from the University Hospital "Maggiore della Carità", Novara, Italy. We assessed serum levels of vitamin D and oral health status through the following indexes: Oral Hygiene Index (OHI), Plaque Control Record (PCR), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPTIN). Moreover, we assessed the number of Preterm birth (PTB) and Low-Birth- Weight (LBW) among the newborns.

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The results of the study are as follows:

  • Out of 121 pregnant women recruited, 72 were included.
  • There was a statistically significant correlation between preterm and OHI > 3 and between LBW and OHI > 3 and CPITN = 3
  • Both pregnant women with vitamin D deficiency and Preterm birth (PTB) and Low-Birth- Weight (LBW) newborns were significantly correlated with poor levels of all oral health status indexes during pregnancy.
  • Furthermore, these conditions (women with hypovitaminosis D and combination of Preterm birth (PTB) and Low-Birth- Weight (LBW)) were shown to be significantly correlated.
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Thus, the researchers concluded that taken together, their findings reported a high prevalence of Preterm birth (PTB) and Low-Birth- Weight (LBW) with poor oral health and vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women.

Reference:

Periodontal Disease and Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Women: Which Correlation with Preterm and Low-Weight Birth? By Martina Ferrillo et. al published in the Journal of Clinical Medicine.

https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10194578


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Article Source : Journal of Clinical Medicine

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