Layered closure of upper abdominal transverse incisions carry a lower risk of incisional-SSIs: study
In comparison to mass closure, layered closure of upper abdominal transverse incisions is significantly associated with fewer incisional surgical site infections (SSI), as per a recent study published in Annals of Surgery.
A group of researchers conducted a study to compare the early results of mass and layered closure of upper abdominal transverse incisions. Contrary to midline incisions, data on the closure of transverse abdominal incisions are lacking.
This is the first analysis of a randomized controlled trial primarily designed to compare mass with layered closure of transverse incisions with respect to incisional hernias. Patients undergoing laparotomy through upper abdominal transverse incisions were randomized to either mass or layered closure with continuous sutures. Incisional surgical site infection (incisional-SSI) was the primary end-point. Secondary end-points comprised suture-to-wound length ratio (SWLR), closure duration, and fascial dehiscence.
The Results of the study are as follows:
A total of 268 patients were randomized to either mass (n=134) or layered (n=134) closure. Incisional-SSIs occurred in 24 (17.9%) and 8 (6.0%) patients after mass and layered closure, respectively (P =0.004), with crude odds ratio (OR) of 0.29 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.13–0.67; P =0.004]. The layered technique was independently associated with fewer incisional-SSIs (OR: 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.69; P =0.005). The number needed to treat, absolute, and relative risk reduction for layered technique in reducing incisional-SSIs was 8.4 patients, 11.9%, and 66.5%, respectively. Dehiscence occurred in one (0.8%) patient after layered closure and in two (1.5%) patients after mass closure (P >0.999). Median SWLR were 8.1 and 5.6 (P <0.001) with median closure times of 27.5 and 25.0 minutes (P =0.044) for layered and mass closures, respectively.
Thus, the researchers concluded that layered closure of upper abdominal transverse incisions should be preferred due to lower risk of incisional-SSIs and higher SWLR, despite clinically irrelevant longer duration.
Incisional Surgical Site Infections After Mass and Layered Closure of Upper Abdominal Transverse Incisions: First Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial by Grąt, Michał et al. published in the Annals of Surgery.