Polymorphism in Vitamin D receptor gene not responsible for occurrence of dental caries: Study
The influence of environmental factors on dental caries is a well-established fact; however, little is known about the impact of genetics on the caries process.
Incidence of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene ( Taq1 gene) polymorphism does not seem to have a role in the incidence of dental caries in the studied population, it may, however, have a role in the severity of the caries process, reports suggest from a recent study published in the Indian Journal of Dental Research.
A team of researchers from the Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Meenakshi Ammal Dental College and Hospital, MAHER University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India conducted the present study to analyse the association between the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphism and dental caries. It also compared the risk of dental caries between individuals with homozygous (tt and TT) genotype and heterozygous (Tt) genotype. Further, this study also aimed to compare VDR gene polymorphism by gender.
The authors included a total of 196 subjects. All the patients were selected based on their decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index according to the WHO guidelines (1997), and were divided into two groups based on caries experience. The case group was further classified into low and high caries groups.
The saliva samples were collected, DNA was extracted, and VDR Taq1 (T/C) gene polymorphism was analysed by polymerase chain reaction–based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and visualized under 2% agarose gel.
The following findings were highlighted-
- There was no significant difference in the VDR Taq1 polymorphism and dental caries between the case and control group.
- However, further stratification showed a statistically significant difference based on caries experience in the study group.
- The heterozygous mutant genotype (Tt) was associated with a higher caries experience (62.1%) (P = 0.008) with the frequency of 't' allele being 77% as compared to 'T' allele (63.6%) in the high caries group.
As a result, the authors concluded that though the incidence of VDR Taq1 gene polymorphism does not seem to have a role in the incidence of dental caries in the studied population, it may, however, have a role in the severity of the caries process.
Despite the limitations discussed, the present study may prove useful in providing a baseline and starting point for the genotyping of caries susceptibility genes in the Indian population, explained the authors.
Protyusha G B, Sundharam B S. Analysis of the association between polymorphisms in Vitamin D receptor gene and dental caries. Indian J Dent Res 2021;32:3-7