Increased exercise during first trimester may reduce gestational diabetes risk
Researchers have found in a new study that increased first-trimester exercise may reduce gestational diabetes risk.
Lead researcher Samantha Ehrlich, an assistant professor in the Department of Public Health at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and adjunct investigator with the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research found that pregnant women who exercise more during the first trimester of pregnancy may have a lower risk of developing gestational diabetes. The analysis found that lower risk was associated with at least 38 minutes of moderate intensity exercise each day.The current recommendations of exercise are of at least 30 minutes a day five days a week. The study has been published in the journal Diabetes Care.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as glucose intolerance first recognized during pregnancy. It can pose serious health problems including pregnancy and delivery complications as well as increased future risk for diabetes in both mother and child.
The researchers conducted the study to estimate the effects of exercise during the first trimester on the risks of abnormal screening and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Ehrlich said, "We know that exercise is safe and beneficial for healthy pregnant women. These results show that exercise is helpful in avoiding gestational diabetes, though you might need to do a little bit more than currently recommended to enjoy that benefit."
The observational study was based on women's self-reported levels of exercise during their first trimester of pregnancy. It found that exercising at least 38 minutes per day lowered the risk of gestational diabetes by 2.1 cases per 100 women and the risk of abnormal blood sugar by 4.8 cases per 100 women.
"We know that six to 10 women per 100 get gestational diabetes," Ehrlich said. "If being more active could reduce that by two women per 100, that's a clear benefit."
The study analyzes data collected for the Pregnancy Environment and Lifestyle Study (PETALS), a longitudinal study that included a physical activity questionnaire from 2,246 pregnant members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The women in the study were racially and ethnically diverse and of a wide range of pre-pregnancy weight classifications.
The authors suggest that the current recommendations may need to be rethought to improve women's chances of preventing gestational diabetes with exercise. The most recent guidelines from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were updated in 2020, and those from the US Department of Health and Human Services were updated in 2018.
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