Long term exposure to air pollution tied to diabetes in Indian population: JAPI
Bikaner, Rajasthan: Air pollution is a critical and manageable risk factor for diabetes and hence there is a need for awareness about air pollution in the society and at the government level, says a recent study in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. The study found that long-term air pollution is associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose...
Bikaner, Rajasthan: Air pollution is a critical and manageable risk factor for diabetes and hence there is a need for awareness about air pollution in the society and at the government level, says a recent study in the Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. The study found that long-term air pollution is associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and diabetes prevalence.
Exposure to air pollution has been shown to adversely impact health through a number of biological pathways and is also tied to glucose metabolism. Only a few studies have investigated the associations between air pollution and fasting blood sugar and HbA1C levels but no such study was conducted in the Indian population.
To address the knowledge gap described above, Monika Gupta, Sardar Patel Medical College, Bikaner, and colleagues aimed to evaluate the associations between air-borne fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide, and glucose metabolism in a tertiary care center in northwestern Rajasthan.
For this purpose, the researchers performed a cross-sectional analysis of 3457 participants between 30 to 70 years of age group from five different urban and rural areas of the Bikaner district. The ambient air quality standard method by respiratory dust sampler was used to estimate air pollution concentration of multiple air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, and Nitrogen dioxide).
Diabetes was defined based on medication prescription, self-reported diagnosis, HbA1C, and oral glucose tolerance test. Potential confounders including smoking habits, socioeconomic status, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity, and alcohol consumption were adjusted using a logistic regression method.
Based on the study, the researchers revealed the following findings:
- After adjustment for potential confounders, air pollutants PM10, NO2, except PM2.5 was associated with diabetes prevalence.
- The prevalence of diabetes was 8.93% and the mean HbA1C was 8.67±1.16, whereas the concentration of PM10 was 156.12 mcg/m3, NO2 was 5.43 mcg/m3 and PM2.5 was 25.36 mcg/m3.
- The prevalence of IFG, IGT, and diabetes increases with an increased concentration of air pollutants.
- By applying Pearson's co-relation for air pollutants the 'r' value of PM10was 0.163, p value < 0.001, for PM2.5 'r' value was 0.001 and p value 0.965, for NO2 'r' value was 0.149 and p value was 0.001 respectively.
- By applying step-wise logistic regression analysis, air pollutants PM10 (Odd Ratio 0.002) and by adding the duration of exposure to air pollutants (Odd ratio 0.003) by adding PM2.5 air pollutant (odds ratio 0.028) and by adding NO2 (odds ratio 0.140).
"We found that long-term air pollution exposure was associated with IFG, IGT, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM)," wrote the authors.
"This study can be used as good evidence that air pollution is an important and manageable risk factor for diabetes hence there is a much need for awareness about air pollution in the society and at the government level," they concluded.
Gupta M, Agrawal RP, Meena BL, Ramesh, Meel JK, Agrawal R. Association between Long Term Exposure to Air Pollution, Impaired Fasting Glucose, Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Prevalence of Diabetes. J Assoc Physicians India. 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12. PMID: 35443338.
Medha Baranwal joined Medical Dialogues as an Editor in 2018 for Speciality Medical Dialogues. She covers several medical specialties including Cardiac Sciences, Dentistry, Diabetes and Endo, Diagnostics, ENT, Gastroenterology, Neurosciences, and Radiology. She has completed her Bachelors in Biomedical Sciences from DU and then pursued Masters in Biotechnology from Amity University. She has a working experience of 5 years in the field of medical research writing, scientific writing, content writing, and content management. She can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org. Contact no. 011-43720751