Intraoperative auditory stimulation improves pain and agitation in kids after adenotonsillectomy: JAMA
According to a recent study published in the JAMA Otolaryngology- Head & Neck Surgery, it has been found out that intraoperative auditory stimulation is an effective nonpharmacologic intervention for post adenotonsillectomy pain and agitation in children.
Severe pain on awakening (POA) and emergence delirium (ED) are common following pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Effective preventive interventions are lacking.
Therefore, Enrico Muzzi and colleagues from the Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Trieste, Italy conducted the present study to determine the effects of intraoperative auditory stimulation on reduction of POA and ED after pediatric adenotonsillectomy.
Single-center, double-blinded, 4-armed, randomized clinical trial of 104 children undergoing adenotonsillectomy at a tertiary care pediatric referral center were included in the study.
Children were randomized to 1 of the following groups: auditory stimulation with music, auditory stimulation with noise, ambient noise insulation with masking earplugs, and a control group receiving no intervention.
Ear inserts were placed in the operating room once general anesthesia was administered. Stimulation parameters were based on the preoperative audiological evaluation and the appropriate fitting of the transduction system, including ambient noise level monitoring.
The primary outcome was POA levels measured on 10-point scales according to age-appropriate validated tools. The secondary outcome was ED levels assessed according to the Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium 20-point scale.
The key findings included-
- A total of 104 consecutive healthy children (median [interquartile range] age at surgery, 5.0 [3.8-6.4] years) were included in the analysis.
- Music had a large effect size on POA (0.63; 98% CI, 0.43-0.84) and a medium effect size on ED (0.47; 98% CI, 0.21-0.75), while noise had a medium effect size on POA (0.47; 98% CI, 0.22-0.73) and a large effect size on ED (0.63; 98% CI, 0.44-0.85) compared with controls.
- The earplugs group showed a small effect size on POA and ED.
- Considering a clinically meaningful threshold of greater than 4 for POA and 10 or greater for ED at dichotomized analysis, a large effect size was achieved by music (1.39; odds ratio [OR], 0.08; 98% CI, 0.02-0.29; and 0.84; OR, 0.22; 98% CI, 0.06-0.75, respectively) and noise (0.97; OR, 0.17; 98% CI, 0.05-0.6; and 1.48; OR, 0.07; 98% CI, 0.02-0.26, respectively), while earplugs resulted in a small effect size.
Hence, the authors concluded that "children undergoing adenotonsillectomy who received intraoperative auditory stimulation demonstrated a clinically meaningful decrease in POA and ED in the immediate postoperative period. Further research is needed to assess whether intraoperative auditory stimulation may decrease POA and ED in children undergoing other types of surgical procedures."