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Medical Bulletin 14/September/2022
Here are the top medical news for the day:
Tumor infiltrating B cells and plasma cells influence early-stage lung cancer
Through extensive single-cell analysis, researchers at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center have created a spatial map of tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells in early- stage lung cancers, highlighting previously unappreciated roles these immune cells play in tumor development and treatment outcomes.
The study, published in Cancer Discovery, represents the largest and most comprehensive single-cell atlas on tumor-infiltrating B cells and plasma cells to date, which can be used to develop novel immunotherapy strategies.
LINGHUA WANG et al,A full list of collaborating authors and their disclosures can be found with the full paper here.,Cancer Discovery
Artificial Intelligence helpful in detecting pancreatic cancer
An artificial intelligence (AI) tool is highly effective at detecting pancreatic cancer on CT, according to a study published in Radiology, a journal of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA).
Pancreatic cancer has the lowest five-year survival rate among cancers. It is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States by 2030. Early detection is the best way to improve the dismal outlook, as prognosis worsens significantly once the tumor grows beyond 2 centimeters.
Weichung Wang et al,Pancreatic Cancer Detection on CT Scans with Deep Learning: AnNationwide Population-based Study,Radiology
AI-based system holds potential in TB detection
An artificial intelligence (AI) system detects tuberculosis (TB) in chest X-rays at a level comparable to radiologists, according to a study published in Radiology, a journal of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA). Researchers said the AI system may be able to aid screening in areas with limited radiologist resources.
TB is an infectious disease of the lungs that kills more than a million people worldwide every year. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the problem, with recent reports indicating that 21% fewer people received care for TB in 2020 than in 2019. Almost 90% of the active TB infections occur in about 30 countries, many with scarce resources needed to address this public health problem.
Rory Pilgrim et al,Deep Learning Detection of Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis at Chest Radiography Matched the Clinical Performance of Radiologists,Radiology
Common bacteria may help some viruses that cause cancer by suppressing the Immune system
Gut bacteria have a profound impact on health by aiding digestion, providing nutrients and metabolites, and working with the immune system to fend off pathogens. Some gut bacteria, however, have been implicated in progression of cancers of the gut and associated organs.
A new study by researchers from the University of Chicago shows that some commensal bacteria promote the development of leukemia caused by the murine leukemia virus (MuLV) by suppressing the animal's adaptive anti-tumor immune response. When both the virus and commensal bacteria are present in mice, three genes known as negative immune regulators are expressed more, or upregulated, which in turn tamps down the immune response that would otherwise kill the tumor cells. Two of these three negative immune regulators are also known to be indicators of poor prognosis for humans with some forms of cancer.
Tatyana Golovkina et al,Gut commensal bacteria enhance pathogenesis of a tumorigenic murine retrovirus,Cell Reports,DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111341
B.Sc Life Sciences, M.Sc Biotechnology, B.Ed
Isra Zaman is a Life Science graduate from Daulat Ram College, Delhi University, and a postgraduate in Biotechnology from Amity University. She has a flair for writing, and her roles at Medicaldialogues include that of a Sr. content writer and a medical correspondent. Her news pieces cover recent discoveries and updates from the health and medicine sector. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.