Medical Bulletin 16/November/2022
A new study published in Diabetologia (the journal of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes [EASD]) finds that outdoor artificial light at night (LAN) is associated with impaired blood glucose control and an increased risk of diabetes, with more than 9 million cases of the disease in Chinese adults being attributed to light at night exposure.
The study used data from the China Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance Study. A total of 98,658 adults participated, undergoing interviews to collect demographic, medical, household income, lifestyle, education and family history information. The mean age of participants was 42.7 years and around approximately half were women.
Outdoor light at night in relation to glucose homoeostasis and diabetes in Chinese adults: a national and cross-sectional study of 98,658 participants from 162 study sites; Diabetologia, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-022-05819-x.
Trial shows benefits of two forms of ankle surgery for osteoarthritis
Ankle Arthroscopy is the most effective when pain is due to contact between bone spurs and the arthritis has not yet caused significant cartilage damage. Arthroscopy can make an arthritic joint deteriorate more rapidly. Patients with advanced ankle osteoarthritis who undergo surgery see equally good outcomes from the two main surgical treatments for osteoarthritis, a new study led by UCL researchers has shown.
The TARVA randomised clinical trial compared total ankle joint replacement with ankle fusion (when the ankle joint is pinned to prevent movement). It was led by the Comprehensive Clinical Trials Unit at UCL, and involved 17 NHS Trusts across the UK.
Andrew J. Goldberg, Kashfia Chowdhury, Ekaterina Bordea, Iva Hauptmannova, James Blackstone, Deirdre Brooking, Elizabeth L. Deane, Stephen Bendall, Andrew Bing, Chris Blundell, Sunil Dhar, Andrew Molloy, Steve Milner, Mike Karski, Steve Hepple, Malik Siddique, David T. Loveday, Viren Mishra, Paul Cooke, Paul Halliwell, David Townshend, Simon S. Skene, Caroline J. Dor. Total Ankle Replacement Versus Arthrodesis for End-Stage Ankle Osteoarthritis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2022; DOI: 10.7326/M22-2058
Bariatric surgery decreases risk of heart disease
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the US, affecting more than 30% of adults. It is characterized by hepatic steatosis in the absence of substantial alcohol consumption, long-term use of steatogenic drugs, or genetic disorders.
Reporting their results in JAMA Network researchers from State University, reported that obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery were nearly 50 percent less likely to develop adverse cardiovascular events such as heart attacks, angina or strokes.
The findings provide evidence in support of bariatric surgery as an effective therapeutic tool to lower elevated risk of cardiovascular disease for select individuals with obesity and Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
Bariatric surgery decreases risk of heart disease; JOURNAL-JAMA Network Open, DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.35003.
The hunt for disrupted brain signals behind autism
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. People with ASD often have problems with social communication and interaction, and restricted or repetitive behaviors or interests. People with ASD may also have different ways of learning, moving, or paying attention.
New research findings in mouse models of one genetic risk for autism support the idea that loss of a specific gene interferes with cells in the brain whose role is to inhibit signaling. Though there are fewer of these cells than other neurons and their signals don't travel very far, they have enormous influence on patterns of information transmission within the brain and to the rest of the body.
The hunt for disrupted brain signals behind autism; OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, MEETING- Neuroscience 2022.