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Medical Bulletin 21/September/2022
Here are the top medical news for the day:
link between diabetes and UTIs explained in new study
Lower immunity and recurring infections are common in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden showed that the immune system of people with diabetes has lower levels of the antimicrobial peptide psoriasin, which compromises the urinary bladder's cell barrier, increasing the risk of urinary tract infection.
Diabetes results from lack of insulin and/or decreased insulin action. Insulin is a hormone that regulates glucose (sugar) and thus energy to the cells. In type 1 diabetes, the body stops producing insulin, while in type 2 diabetes, the cells have become less sensitive to insulin, which contributes to high blood glucose levels. Diabetes is a common disease that affects the health in many ways.
Annelie Brauner et al, Diabetes downregulates the antimicrobial peptide psoriasin and increases E. coli burden in the urinary bladder,Nature Communications, DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-32636-y
Inflammation fighting gel treats gum disease
A topical gel that blocks the receptor for a metabolic byproduct called succinate treats gum disease by suppressing inflammation and changing the makeup of bacteria in the mouth, according to a new study led by researchers at NYU College of Dentistry.
Gum disease is one of the most prevalent inflammatory diseases, affecting nearly half of adults 30 and older. It is marked by three components: inflammation, an imbalance of unhealthy and healthy bacteria in the mouth, and destruction of the bones and structures that support the teeth. Uncontrolled gum disease can lead to painful and bleeding gums, difficulty chewing, and tooth loss.
Xin Li et al, Cell Reports, DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111389
Unique breast cancer cells that control their ability to proliferate and colonize lungs, identified
Scientists from The Tisch Cancer Institute have uncovered a mechanism by which certain breast cancer cells regulate their own metastases, fuel dissemination from the original tumor site, and determine routes to invade distant organs such as the lungs, according to a study published in Cell Reports in September.
For the first time, scientists have identified a type of cancer cell in triple negative breast tumors, which is highly efficient in invading and colonizing distant organs but slow their growth upon colonization. These cells have a hallmark of slowed production of a protein called srGAP1, which is usually attributed to cancer growth.
Jose Javier Bravo-Cordero, et al,THE MOUNT SINAI HOSPITAL / MOUNT SINAI SCHOOL OF MEDICINE, JOURNAL:Cell Reports
Novel treatment system enlightens cancer therapy
One approach to treating cancer is photodynamic therapy using photo-uncaging systems, in which light is used to activate a cancer-fighting agent in situ at the tumor. However, suitable agents must be stable under visible light, have an anti-tumor effect in low-oxygen environments, and have the ability to be activated by low-energy tissue-penetrative red light – a combination of properties that is difficult to achieve. Now, a team from The Institute of Industrial Science has developed a new platform that uses, for the first time, organorhodium(III) phthalocyanine complexes to achieve this combination of traits.
Kazuyuki Ishii et al, Two-Photon, Red Light Uncaging of Alkyl Radicals from Organorhodium(III) Phthalocyanine Complexes, Chemical Communications
B.Sc Life Sciences, M.Sc Biotechnology, B.Ed
Isra Zaman is a Life Science graduate from Daulat Ram College, Delhi University, and a postgraduate in Biotechnology from Amity University. She has a flair for writing, and her roles at Medicaldialogues include that of a Sr. content writer and a medical correspondent. Her news pieces cover recent discoveries and updates from the health and medicine sector. She can be reached at email@example.com.