Medical Bulletin 22/November/2022
Artificial neural networks leverage the architecture of the human brain to improve numerous technologies and systems, from basic science and medicine to finance and social media. In some ways, they have achieved superhuman performance, such as computational speed, but they fail in one key aspect: When artificial neural networks learn sequentially, new information overwrites previous information, a phenomenon called catastrophic forgetting.
Depending on age, humans need 7 to 13 hours of sleep per 24 hours. During this time, a lot happens: Heart rate, breathing and metabolism ebb and flow; hormone levels adjust; the body relaxes. Not so much in the brain. Memories are represented in the human brain by patterns of synaptic weight - the strength or amplitude of a connection between two neurons.
Ryan Golden , Jean Erik Delanois, et al, (2022, November 18), Artificial neural networks learn better when they spend time not learning at all, PLOS Computational Biology, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1010628.
Tumour matrix profiling gives clues to progression of some lung cancers
Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most prevalent type of lung cancer and treatment options for these patients remain limited and have remained largely unchanged over decades. High rates of recurrence and chemotherapy resistance mean that less than one in five patients will survive more than five years after their diagnosis.
Scientists at the Garvan Institute of Medical Research have identified molecular profiles of the surrounding matrix of a common type of lung cancer that might indicate which patients are likely to develop aggressive tumours.
Parker, A.L., Bowman, E., Zingone, A. et al. Extracellular matrix profiles determine risk and prognosis of the squamous cell carcinoma subtype of non-small cell lung carcinoma. Genome Med 14, 126 (2022). DOI: 10.1186/s13073-022-01127-6.
Exercise can reduce severity of breast cancer treatment side effects
Breast cancer is the most common form of the disease among women; in Australia, one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer by the age of 85.
Radiotherapy has emerged as an important component of breast cancer treatment but can lead to cancer-related fatigue and negatively impact patients' health-related quality of life including their emotional, physical and social wellbeing.
However, latest research by Edith Cowan University (ECU) has revealed exercise may make radiotherapy more tolerable for patients.
Mavropalias, G., Cormie, P., Peddle-McIntyre, C.J. et al. The effects of home-based exercise therapy for breast cancer-related fatigue induced by radical radiotherapy. Breast Cancer (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12282-022-01408-3