Doctor of Medicine (MD) Laboratory Medicine: Admission, Fees, Medical Colleges, Eligibility Criteria details here
MD Laboratory Medicine or Doctor of Medicine in Laboratory Medicine, also known as MD in Laboratory Medicine is a Postgraduate level course for doctors in India that is done by them after completion of their MBBS. The duration of this postgraduate course is 3 years, and it focuses on the study of performing state-of-the-art diagnostic procedures, management, and follow-up...
MD Laboratory Medicine or Doctor of Medicine in Laboratory Medicine, also known as MD in Laboratory Medicine is a Postgraduate level course for doctors in India that is done by them after completion of their MBBS. The duration of this postgraduate course is 3 years, and it focuses on the study of performing state-of-the-art diagnostic procedures, management, and follow-up of patients.
The course is a full-time course pursued at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS New Delhi), Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital (Sitapur, Jaipur).
Admission to this course is done through the NEET PG Entrance exam conducted by the National Board of Examinations, followed by counseling based on the scores of the exam that is conducted by DGHS/MCC/State Authorities.
The fee for pursuing an MD in Laboratory Medicine varies from college to college. The average course fee is Rs 40000 to Rs 10 Lakh per annum.
After completion of their respective course, doctors can either join the job market or pursue a super-specialization course where MD Laboratory Medicine is a feeder qualification. Candidates can take reputed jobs as Senior residents, Junior Consultants, etc. with an approximate salary range of Rs. 10 Lakh to 40 Lakh per annum.
What is MD in Laboratory Medicine?
Doctor of Medicine in Laboratory Medicine, also known as MD (Laboratory Medicine) is a three-year postgraduate program that candidates can pursue after completing MBBS.
Laboratory Medicine is the branch of medical science dealing with clinical science and discipline, and it focuses on the study of performing state-of-the-art diagnostic procedures, management, and follow-up of patients.
National Medical Commission (NMC), the apex medical regulator, has released a Guidelines for Competency-Based Postgraduate Training Programme for MD in Laboratory Medicine.
The Competency-Based Postgraduate Training Programme governs the education and training of MDs in Laboratory Medicine.
The PG education intends to create specialists who can contribute to high-quality health care and advances in science through research and training.
The required training done by a postgraduate specialist in the field of Laboratory Medicine would help the specialist recognize the community's health needs. The student should be competent to handle medical problems effectively and should be aware of the recent advances in their specialty.
The candidate should be a highly competent doctor possessing a broad range of skills that will enable her/him to practice Laboratory Medicine independently. The PG candidate should also acquire the basic skills in teaching medical/para-medical students.
The candidate is also expected to know the principles of research methodology and modes of the consulting library. The candidate should regularly attend conferences, workshops, and CMEs to upgrade her/ his knowledge.
Here are some of the course highlights of MD in Laboratory Medicine
Name of Course
MD in Laboratory Medicine
Duration of Course
Three years course
Minimum Academic Requirement
MBBS degree obtained from any college/university recognized by the Medical Council of India
Admission Process / Entrance Process / Entrance Modalities
Entrance Exam (NEET PG)
INI CET for various AIIMS, PGIMER Chandigarh, JIPMER Puducherry, NIMHANS Bengaluru
Counseling by DGHS/MCC/State Authorities
Rs 40000 to Rs 10 Lakh per annum
Rs. 10 Lakh to 40 Lakh per annum
The eligibility criteria for MD in Laboratory Medicine are defined as the set of rules or minimum prerequisites that aspirants must meet to be eligible for admission, which includes:
1. Candidates must have an undergraduate MBBS degree from any college/university recognized by the Medical Council of India (MCI).
2. Candidates should have done a compulsory rotating internship of one year in a teaching institution or other institution which is recognized by the Medical Council of India (MCI).
3. The candidate must have obtained permanent registration of any State Medical Council to be eligible for admission.
4. The medical college's recognition cut-off dates for the MBBS Degree courses and compulsory rotatory Internship shall be as prescribed by the Medical Council of India (now NMC).
The admission process contains a few steps to be followed in order by the candidates for admission to MD in Laboratory Medicine. Candidates can view the complete admission process for MD in Laboratory Medicine mentioned below:
1. The NEET PG or National Eligibility Entrance Test for Post Graduate is a national-level master's level examination conducted by the NBE for admission to MD/MS/PG Diploma Courses.
2. The requirement of eligibility criteria for participation in counseling towards PG seat allotment conducted by the concerned counseling authority shall be instead of the Post Graduate Medical Education Regulations (as per the latest amendment) notified by the MCI (now NMC) with prior approval of MoHFW.
SC/ST/OBC (Including PWD of SC/ST/OBC)
3. The following Medical institutions are not covered under centralized admissions for MD/MS seats through NEET- PG:
1. AIIMS, New Delhi, and other AIIMS
2. PGIMER, Chandigarh
3. JIPMER, Puducherry
4. NIMHANS, Bengaluru
The fee structure for MD in Laboratory Medicine varies from college to college. The fee is generally less for Government Institutes and more for private institutes. The average fee structure for MD in Laboratory Medicine is Rs 40000 to Rs 10 Lakh per annum.
Colleges offering MD in Laboratory Medicine
Various medical colleges across India offer courses for pursuing MD (Laboratory Medicine).
As per National Medical Commission (NMC) website, the following medical colleges are offering MD (Laboratory Medicine) courses for the academic year 2022-23.
|Sl.No.||State||Name and Address of Medical College / Medical Institution||No. of seats|
|1||Delhi||All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi||12|
|2||Rajasthan||Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Hospital, Sitapur, Jaipur||3|
An MD in Laboratory Medicine is a three years specialization course that provides training in the stream of Laboratory Medicine.
The course content for MD in Laboratory Medicine is given in the Competency-Based Postgraduate Training Programme released by National Medical Commission, which can be accessed on the link below:
A. Cognitive Domain:
The post-graduate student must acquire knowledge in the following:
1. ORGANIZATION OF THE LABORATORY
• Spatial organization: flooring, ventilation, air-conditioning, sanitation, drainage
• Disposal of waste in differently colored bags; from the collection, and segregation to disposal
• Laboratory Safety:
Prevention of physical, chemical & biological hazards
First Aid in laboratory accidents; management and post-exposure prophylaxis
Understanding of different levels of biosafety; BSL I, BSL, II, and BSL III.
• Financing, budgeting, and cost accounting of investigations
• Management of laboratory stores
• Special reference to glassware, chemicals (AL, LR) & storage of dangerous poisonous chemicals
• Personal management and training of technical staff
• Streamlining of input and output of lab investigations, specimen collection, and dispatch of the report (TOT, point solution to patients)
• Understanding of POC testing in the wards
• Computerization of laboratory services (LIS and its connection with HIS)
• Legal aspects of laboratory services.
2. QUALITY CONTROL & QUALITY ASSURANCE
• Sources of errors in laboratory results a) pre-analytical b) analytical c) post-analytical.
• Methods of detection of errors
• Types of error
• Corrective measures to minimize the errors
• Method of documentation of the whole procedures
• Onward transmission of the knowledge and skill to the other laboratory
• Preparation of internal `control'
• Proficiency testing program, participation in E.Q.A.P. & preparation of biological standards
• Procurements of 'Standards' and 'Control' for Hematology, Clinical Chemistry, and immunoassays
• Quality assurance in microscopy
• To check the calibration of Pipettes, speed of centrifuge, the temperature of freezer, incubator, oven, etc.
Acquire knowledge of i) principle, ii) parts, iii) working manual, and iv) preventive maintenance of the following instruments:
A. Major Instruments:
• Photoelectric Colorimeter
• Centrifuge machines (tabletop, high speed, cold centrifuge)
• Blood Cell Counter
• ELISA Reader & Washer
• Flame-photometer & Electrolyte analyzer
• Blood Gas Analyzer
• Microscopes: Light, Fluorescent, Dark ground, Phase contrast
• Electrophoresis apparatus,
• Culture hood & Biosafety hood
• Thermocycler and Gel doc.
• Microbial culture system,
• TB culture system
• Urine analysis system
• BOD Incubator
• Immunoassay analyzer
• -200 C and -800 C deep freezer
• Refrigerated centrifuge machine.
B. Minor Instruments:
• Different types of shakers, roller mixer, Cyclomixer, etc.
• Different kinds of refrigerators (4, -20c, -80C)
• Incubators (including BOD incubator)
• Distillation plant
• Deionizer plant
• RO System
• Auto pipettes
• pH meter
• Analytical balance
• Tabletop centrifuge.
C. The principles and working manual of the following techniques:
• Chromatography of different kinds particularly HPLC, TLC, and GLC,
• Flow Cytometry
• Chemi-luminescence analysis
• Scanning and Transmission Electron microscopy,
• Beta & Gamma Counting.
4. PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY & CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
a) Physical Chemistry
• Molecular weight, Atomic weight, Equivalence weight, Log table, Periodic table
• Water of crystallization, colloid, crystalloid, osmolality, osmolarity, normality, specific gravity.
b) Clinical Biochemistry:
• Carbohydrate chemistry: identification, metabolism, and disorders of metabolism; diabetes Mellitus, hypoglycemia
• Structure, function, and physiological roles of different proteins, metabolism, hypo-, and hyper-proteinemia
• Amino acids & related metabolites, aminoaciduria
• Glycoproteins, proteoglycans, and collagen
• Lipids, lipoproteins, apoproteins
• Enzymology: diagnostic values of enzymes & isozymes in health and disease
• Acid-base and Electrolyte imbalance and regulation
• Tumor markers
• DNA-RNA chemistry
• Vitamins, & Trace elements, and other important metals
• Biochemistry of various body fluids
• Functions of endocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas, and gonads
• Bone and GI tract as an endocrine organ
• Biochemistry of hormone synthesis, degradation, and excretion, assay methods
• Neurochemistry: neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones; their synthesis and functions
5. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF BODY FLUIDS
Physical, chemical and microscopic examination of various excretory / secretary fluids e.g. (i) urine (ii) CSF (iii) peritoneal, pleural, pericardial, synovial, (v) amniotic (vi) semen (vii) sputum and (viii) feces.
6. HAEMATOLOGY & TRANSFUSION MEDICINE
• Detection and typing of anemia
• Neutrophilia, eosinophilia, basophilia, lymphocytosis, neutropenia, Lymphopenia, Agranulocytosis
• Leukemia classification, cytochemistry immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, clinical- pathological correlation
• Thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, platelet functions
• Investigation of bleeding disorders
• Investigation of a prothrombotic state
• Automation in hematology: difference with automation in clinical chemistry
• Bone marrow physiology and pathology
B. Transfusion Medicine
• Basic immunohematology
• ABO and Rh grouping
• Clinical significance of other blood groups
• Transfusion therapy includes the use of whole blood, RBC concentrates, and Blood component therapy
• Rationale of pre-transfusion testing
• Transfusion transmitted Infections
• Adverse reactions to transfusion of blood and blood components
• Quality control in blood bank
7. INVESTIGATIONS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES
• Medically important microbes in general. Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacilli like Salmonella, Shigella, and E Coli. Gram-positive cocci & bacilli and Mycobacteria, in particular, their general behavior, life history, metabolism, genetics, and mode of infection
• Epidemiology of infectious diseases
• Hospital Acquired Infections/Nosocomial infections
• Medically important parasites
• Medically important viruses
• Medically important fungi
• Systemic Microbiology: Gastroenteritis and bacterial food poisoning, septicemia, wound infection, burn associate infections, U.T.I., R.T.I., C.N.S. infection including meningitis, encephalitis, STDs/ AIDS, opportunistic infections, congenital infections and infections in vulnerable groups e.g. AIDS patients, cancer patients, Geriatrics, premature babies, pregnancy & post-transplantation.
• Vaccines for infectious diseases
• Laboratory-acquired infections
• Diagnosis & prevention of infection
• Lab. Safety: Bloodborne diseases including-Viral Hepatitis & HIV, airborne infections, Universal standard precautions, Principles of bio-safety
• Medico-Legal aspects of infectious diseases including postmortem findings and evidence-based opinion on criminal cases in regard to infections/vaccines.
• Notifiable disease
8. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
• Physiology of Immune System
• Hypersensitivity reactions
• Autoimmune diseases
• Transplantation immunology
• Host-Parasite interaction
9. CLINICAL PHYSIOLOGY ORGAN FUNCTION TESTS:
• Liver function tests
• Kidney function tests
• Gastric function tests
• Pancreatic function tests
• Splenic function tests
• Tests for malabsorption
• Respiratory function tests
• Cardiac function tests, and
• Endocrine function tests.
10. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
• Structure of DNA & RNA
• Genetic configuration of commonly used genomic vectors/host and their uses in molecular biology
• Blotting technology (Southern, Northern, Western)
• DNA hybridization
• RNA hybridization
• Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its variants in various diseases
• LCR (Ligase Chain Reaction)
• NASBA (Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification)
• Micro-array technology
• Chromosomal analysis
• HLA typing
• Principles of bioassays, Bio-chips
• Cell culture technology.
11. ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
• Theory and methods of biopsy, processing of tissue
• Basic and general Pathology like degeneration, necrosis, inflammation, growth disorders, circulatory disturbance, hypersensitivity reaction, deficiency disease.
• Histopathology techniques, Cytopathology techniques, Histochemistry techniques, Immuno-histochemistry techniques, Electron Microscopy.
• Study of common histo-pathological lesions such as:
o Proliferative, secretory, and menstruating endometrium
o Gestational products
o Common skin lesions such as psoriasis, lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris, squamous cell carcinoma
o TB lymph adenitis
o Acute appendicitis
o Fatty liver
o Amyloidosis (of the kidney)
o Colloid goiter
o Benign tumors, such as fibroadenoma breast, leiomyoma uterus
o Malignant tumors such as squamous cell carcinoma of skin/lung, adenocarcinoma of the breast, mucin secreting adenocarcinoma colon/stomach/ovary, metastatic carcinoma in lymph node and the bone marrow.
B. PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
The post-graduate student should acquire the following skills:
• Preparation of standard, normal & molar solution
• Preparation of buffers
• Preparation of Laboratory reagents
• Handling of corrosives, and poisonous chemicals.
• Manual method of estimation of sugar, urea, bilirubin, protein (total and fractional), creatinine, cholesterol, uric acid, amylase, acid, and alkaline phosphatases,
• Automated methods of estimation of a) above substances b) SGOT, SGPT, LDH, CPK, Calcium, and Phosphate.
• Measurement of blood pH & arterial blood gases,
• Electrolytes estimation (Na, K, Ca, Cl)
• Lipids, apo-proteins, and lipoproteins,
• Tumor markers
• Chemical analysis of body fluids, (CSF, Peritoneal/pleural/synovial fluid)
• Practical exercises on quality assurance in a clinical biochemistry laboratory.
• Endocrine organ function tests.
3. HAEMATOLOGY & TRANSFUSION MEDICINE
• Collection, transport, and processing of blood samples for different hematological investigations
• Performance of routine hemogram: Hb, TLC, DLC, ESR.
• Preparation, staining, and interpretation of peripheral blood smear, Reticulocyte count, buffy coat preparation, Hematocrit measurement
• Aspiration of bone marrow, preparation of touch smear, and bone biopsy. Staining and interpretation of marrow
• Cytochemistry of blood smear and bone marrow smear and their interpretation,
• Nutritional Anemia Study: Serum iron, folate, and vitamin B12 estimation
• Hemolytic studies e.g. osmotic frangibility, a sickling test, estimation of HbF, HbA2, Comb's test vii) Leukocyte function test
• Screening coagulation and DIC studies. BT, CT, PT, APTT, clot stability
• Investigation of prothrombotic states. Protein C, Protein S, Antithrombin III, Lupus anticoagulant
• Demonstration of common blood parasites
• Understanding automation in hematology: advantage and limits.
B. Transfusion Medicine
• Selection and bleeding of donors
• ABO and Rh grouping
• Resolving ABO grouping problems by secretor status in saliva and expanded panel of minor blood groups
• Familiarity with antibody screening by; a) LISS (Low-ionic salt solution) b) Enzymes c) AHG (Anti-Human Globulin)
• Steps to be taken if the above are positive
• Demonstrate familiarity with cross-matching by; a) LISS (Low-ionic salt solution) b) Enzymes c) AHG (Anti-Human Globulin)
• Steps to be taken if there is incompatibility
• Preparation of blood components i.e. cryoprecipitate, platelet concentrate, fresh frozen plasma, single donor plasma, Red Blood Cell concentrates
• Demonstrate familiarity with antenatal and neonatal techniques a) Direct antiglobulin test
b) Antibody screening and titer c) selection of blood for exchange transfusion
• Demonstrate familiarity with principles and procedures involved in, a) resolving ABO grouping problems, b) identification of RBC antibody, c) investigation of transfusion reaction d) testing of blood for the presence of (i) HBV (Hepatitis B Virus Markers) (ii) HCV (Hepatitis C Virus Markers) (iii) HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus markers) (iv) VDRL, and xi) investigation of hemolytic jaundice of adult and newborn.
4. INFECTIOUS DISEASE LABORATORY
• Methods of collection, transportation, and techniques used for clinical samples:
b) bone marrow, splenic, liver, lymph Node aspirates
c) CSF, pus from closed cavities & open wounds
i) swabs (nasal, pharyngeal, rectal, conjunctival.)
• Demonstration of microorganisms by microscopy (bright field, dark ground, phase contrast, fluorescence.)
• Commonly used stains in microbiology: Grams, Giemsa, Romanowsky, A.F.B, Kinyouns', Albert's special stains for spores, capsules, inclusion bodies, parasites & fungi.
• Culture media: their preparation, inoculation, and uses
• Antibiotic sensitivity testing including automation in Microbiology and interpretation of antibiograms vi) Serological techniques e.g. Widal, VDRL, CFT, ID, ELISA, IFA, RIA, etc. In-vitro demonstration of CMI (cell-mediated immunity), Complement cycles, Blast transformation, Monoclonal antibodies, and skin test
• Biochemical tests for microbial identification
• Serotyping of microbes
• Bedside tests: FNA, intradermal tests, cord blood, lumber puncture, etc.
• Animal inoculation studies
• Egg inoculation and cell culture studied for the diagnosis of viral & other microbial infection
• Human parasites including Protozoa, Nematodes, Cestodes, and Trematodes, and their diagnosis by gross, microscopic, and serological & culture techniques. Diagnosis of amoebiasis, giardiasis, Leishmaniasis, Toxoplasmosis & Malaria
• fungal infections in humans and their diagnosis
• Hospital infection surveillance
• Maintenance of strains.
5. CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY
• Demonstration of T and B cells.
• Functional evaluation of T and B cells. CD4 & CD8 counting
• Immunoglobin estimation
• Serological techniques like (a) CFT (b) Agglutination test (c) IHA & (d) ELISA with particular, reference to microbial serology, interleukin, ANF, RF, CRP
• Immunoglobulins in health and disease
• Complements level determination.
6. ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY
• FNAC procedure, processing, staining, and microscopy
• Biopsy and gross specimens handling
• Processing of tissue: manual, automated
• Common histo-pathological staining
• Microscopy of common lesions
The post-graduate student must submit their research protocol within 04 months of joining the MD course. The thesis should be submitted at least 6 months before the date of commencement of the theory examination. The thesis shall be examined by a minimum of three examiners, one internal and two external examiners, who shall not be the examiners for theory and practical; on the acceptance of the thesis by two examiners, the candidate shall appear for the final examination.
After completing an MD in Laboratory Medicine, candidates will get employment opportunities in Government as well as in the Private sector.
In the Government sector, candidates have various options to choose from which include Registrar, Senior Resident, Demonstrator, Tutor, etc.
While in the Private sector the options include Resident Doctor, Consultant, Visiting Consultant (Laboratory Medicine), Junior Consultant, Senior Consultant (Laboratory Medicine), Consultant Laboratory Medicine, Specialist, etc.
Courses After MD in Laboratory Medicine Course
MD in Laboratory Medicine is a specialization course that can be pursued after finishing MBBS. After pursuing a specialization in MD (Laboratory Medicine), a candidate could also pursue super specialization courses recognized by NMC, MD (Laboratory Medicine) is a feeder qualification.
Frequently Asked Question (FAQs) – MD in Sports Medicine Course
Question: What is an MD in Laboratory Medicine?
Answer: MD Laboratory Medicine or also known as MD in Laboratory Medicine is a Postgraduate level course for doctors in India that is done by them after completion of their MBBS.
Question: What is the duration of an MD in Laboratory Medicine?
Answer: MD in Laboratory Medicine is a postgraduate program of three years.
Question: What is the eligibility of an MD in Laboratory Medicine?
Answer: Candidates must have an undergraduate MBBS degree from any college/university recognized by the Medical Council of India.
Question: What is the scope of an MD in Laboratory Medicine?
Answer: MD in Laboratory Medicine offers candidates various employment opportunities and career prospects.
Question: What is the average salary for an MD in Laboratory Medicine postgraduate candidate?
Answer: The MD in Laboratory Medicine candidate's average salary is Rs. 10 Lakh to 40 Lakh per annum.
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