Macrolides most commonly prescribed antibiotic in ambulatory kids with CAP, Study reveals
According to recent research, investigators from the Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA have found out that macrolides are the most commonly prescribed antibiotic for ambulatory children with community-acquired pneumonia. Subsequent hospitalization and severe pneumonia are rare, as published in the Journal of Pediatrics.
The authors carried out this retrospective cohort study with the main objective to describe antibiotic prescribing patterns in ambulatory children with community-acquired pneumonia and to assess the relationship between antibiotic selection and clinical outcomes.
This study of ambulatory Medicaid-enrolled children 0-18 years of age diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia. The exposure was antibiotic class: narrow-spectrum (aminopenicillins), broad-spectrum (amoxicillin/clavulanate and cephalosporins), macrolide monotherapy, macrolides with narrow-spectrum antibiotics, or macrolides with broad-spectrum antibiotics.
The associations between antibiotic selection and the outcomes of subsequent hospitalization and development of severe pneumonia (chest drainage procedure, intensive care admission, mechanical ventilation) were assessed, controlling for measures of illness severity.
Among 252 177 outpatient pneumonia visits, macrolide monotherapy was used in 43.2%, narrow-spectrum antibiotics in 26.1%, and broad-spectrum antibiotics in 24.7%. A total of 1488 children (0.59%) were subsequently hospitalized and 117 (0.05%) developed severe pneumonia.
The following key findings were observed-
- Compared with children receiving narrow-spectrum antibiotics, the odds of subsequent hospitalization was higher in children receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.17-1.52) and lower in children receiving macrolide monotherapy (aOR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.55-0.73) and macrolides with narrow-spectrum antibiotics (aOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.39-0.97).
- Children receiving macrolide monotherapy had lower odds of developing severe pneumonia than children receiving narrow-spectrum antibiotics (aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.33-0.93).
- However, the absolute risk difference was <0.5% for all analyses.
Therefore, the authors concluded that "Macrolides are the most commonly prescribed antibiotic for ambulatory children with community-acquired pneumonia. Subsequent hospitalization and severe pneumonia are rare."
However, future efforts should focus on reducing broad-spectrum and macrolide antibiotic prescribing, they further added.