Maternal opioid-related diagnoses and neonatal abstinence syndrome on the rise: JAMA
USA: The rates of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) and maternal opioid-related diagnoses (MOD) has increased significantly from 2010 to 2017 in the US, finds a recent study in the journal JAMA.
According to the study, NAS increased 82% and maternal opioid-related diagnoses increased 131% between 2010 and 2017.
Previous analyses have documented substantial increases in both NAS and maternal opioid use disorder from 2000 to 2014. Ashley H. Hirai, Health Resources and Services Administration Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland, and colleagues aimed to examine national and state variation in NAS and maternal opioid-related diagnoses rates in 2017 and to describe national and state changes since 2010 in the US, which included expanded MOD codes (opioid use disorder plus long-term and unspecified use) implemented in International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification.
For the purpose, the researchers performed repeated cross-sectional analysis of the 2010 to 2017 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample and State Inpatient Databases -- an all-payer compendium of hospital discharge records from community nonrehabilitation hospitals in 47 states and the District of Columbia.
The main outcome was NAS rate per 1000 birth hospitalizations and MOD rate per 1000 delivery hospitalizations.
Key findings of the study include:
- In 2017, there were 751 037 birth hospitalizations and 748 239 delivery hospitalizations in the national sample; 5375 newborns had NAS and 6065 women had MOD documented in the discharge record. Mean gestational age was 38.4 weeks and mean maternal age was 28.8 years.
- From 2010 to 2017, the estimated NAS rate significantly increased by 3.3 per 1000 birth hospitalizations (95% CI, 2.5-4.1), from 4.0 (95% CI, 3.3-4.7) to 7.3 (95% CI, 6.8-7.7).
- The estimated MOD rate significantly increased by 4.6 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations (95% CI, 3.9-5.4), from 3.5 (95% CI, 3.0-4.1) to 8.2 (95% CI, 7.7-8.7).
- Larger increases for MOD vs NAS rates occurred with new International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes in 2016.
- From a census of 47 state databases in 2017, NAS rates ranged from 1.3 per 1000 birth hospitalizations in Nebraska to 53.5 per 1000 birth hospitalizations in West Virginia, with Maine (31.4), Vermont (29.4), Delaware (24.2), and Kentucky (23.9) also exceeding 20 per 1000 birth hospitalizations, while MOD rates ranged from 1.7 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations in Nebraska to 47.3 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations in Vermont, with West Virginia (40.1), Maine (37.8), Delaware (24.3), and Kentucky (23.4) also exceeding 20 per 1000 delivery hospitalizations.
- From 2010 to 2017, NAS and MOD rates increased significantly for all states except Nebraska and Vermont, which only had MOD increases.
"In the US from 2010 to 2017, estimated rates of NAS and MOD significantly increased nationally and for the majority of states, with notable state-level variation," concluded the authors.
The study titled, "Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome and Maternal Opioid-Related Diagnoses in the US, 2010-2017," is published in the journal JAMA.