Postnatal dexamethasone helps prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia in kids: JAMA
A recent study has suggested that systemic dexamethasone may be the most appropriate postnatal corticosteroid regimen for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or mortality at a PMA of 36 weeks, albeit with a risk of hypertension. The findings have been put forth in JAMA Pediatrics.
The safety of postnatal corticosteroids used for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in preterm neonates is a controversial matter, and a risk-benefit balance needs to be struck.
Researchers undertook the present study to evaluate 14 corticosteroid regimens used to prevent BPD: moderately early-initiated, low cumulative dose of systemic dexamethasone (MoLdDX); moderately early-initiated, medium cumulative dose of systemic dexamethasone (MoMdDX); moderately early-initiated, high cumulative dose of systemic dexamethasone (MoHdDX); late-initiated, low cumulative dose of systemic dexamethasone (LaLdDX); late-initiated, medium cumulative dose of systemic dexamethasone (LaMdDX); late-initiated, high cumulative dose of systemic dexamethasone (LaHdDX); early-initiated systemic hydrocortisone (EHC); late-initiated systemic hydrocortisone (LHC); early-initiated inhaled budesonide (EIBUD); early-initiated inhaled beclomethasone (EIBEC); early-initiated inhaled fluticasone (EIFLUT); late-initiated inhaled budesonide (LIBUD); late-initiated inhaled beclomethasone (LIBEC); and intratracheal budesonide (ITBUD).
PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Embase, World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and CINAHL were searched from inception through August 25, 2020. In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, the randomized clinical trials selected included preterm neonates with a gestational age of 32 weeks or younger and for whom a corticosteroid regimen was initiated within 4 weeks of postnatal age. Peer-reviewed articles and abstracts in all languages were included. Primary combined outcome was BPD, defined as oxygen requirement at 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA), or mortality at 36 weeks' PMA. The secondary outcomes included 15 safety outcomes.
Dat analysis revealed the following facts.
- A total of 62 studies involving 5559 neonates (mean [SD] gestational age, 26  weeks) were included. Several regimens were associated with a decreased risk of BPD or mortality, including EHC (risk ratio [RR], 0.82; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.68-0.97); EIFLUT (RR, 0.75; 95% CrI, 0.55-0.98); LaHdDX (RR, 0.70; 95% CrI, 0.54-0.87); MoHdDX (RR, 0.64; 95% CrI, 0.48-0.82); ITBUD (RR, 0.73; 95% CrI, 0.57-0.91); and MoMdDX (RR, 0.61; 95% CrI, 0.45-0.79).
- Surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) value ranking showed that MoMdDX (SUCRA, 0.91), MoHdDX (SUCRA, 0.86), and LaHdDX (SUCRA, 0.76) were the 3 most beneficial interventions. ITBUD (RR, 4.36; 95% CrI, 1.04-12.90); LaHdDX (RR, 11.91; 95% CrI, 1.64-44.49); LaLdDX (RR, 6.33; 95% CrI, 1.62-18.56); MoHdDX (RR, 4.96; 95% CrI, 1.14-14.75); and MoMdDX (RR, 3.16; 95% CrI, 1.35-6.82) were associated with more successful extubation from invasive mechanical ventilation.
- EHC was associated with a higher risk of gastrointestinal perforation (RR, 2.77; 95% CrI, 1.09-9.32). MoMdDX showed a higher risk of hypertension (RR, 3.96; 95% CrI, 1.10-30.91). MoHdDX had a higher risk of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (RR, 5.94; 95% CrI, 1.95-18.11).
"Although it presents a risk of hypertension, a moderately early-initiated (8-14 days), medium cumulative dose (2-4 mg/kg), short course (<8 days) of systemic dexamethasone might be the most appropriate PNC regimen for preventing the risk of BPD or mortality at PMA of 36 weeks, with a low quality of evidence. In view of this low confidence in the evidence, the successful outcome and safety of this regimen need to be confirmed by an adequately powered multicentric RCT." the team concluded.
For the full article follow the link: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.6826
Primary source:JAMA Pediatrics