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Delirium prevention programs beneficial in improving surgical outcomes in older patients: JAMA
Delirium prevention programs will improve care and outcomes in older patients undergoing elective general surgical procedures, according to a study published in the JAMA Surgery. Delirium significantly worsens elective surgery outcomes and costs. Delirium risk is highest in elderly populations, whose surgical health care resource consumption (50%) exceeds their demographic proportion...
Delirium prevention programs will improve care and outcomes in older patients undergoing elective general surgical procedures, according to a study published in the JAMA Surgery.
Delirium significantly worsens elective surgery outcomes and costs. Delirium risk is highest in elderly populations, whose surgical health care resource consumption (50%) exceeds their demographic proportion (15% to 18%) in high-resource countries. Effective nonpharmacologic delirium prevention could safely improve care in these vulnerable patients, but data from procedure-specific studies are insufficiently compelling to drive changes in practice. Delirium prevention approaches applicable to different surgical settings remain unexplored.
A study was conducted to examine whether a multifaceted prevention intervention is effective in reducing postoperative delirium incidence and prevalence after various major surgical procedures.
This stepped-wedge cluster randomized trial recruited 1470 patients 70 years and older undergoing elective orthopaedic, general, or cardiac surgery from November 2017 to April 2019 from 5 German tertiary medical centresDelirium prevention programs will improve care and outcomes in older patients undergoing elective general surgical procedures. Data were analyzed from December 2019 to July 2021. First, structured delirium education was provided to clinical caregivers at each site. Then, the study delirium prevention team assessed patient delirium risk factors and symptoms daily. Prevention was tailored to individual patient needs and could include: cognitive, motor, and sensory stimulation; meal companionship; accompaniment during diagnostic procedures; stress relaxation; and sleep promotion. The main outcome was Postoperative delirium incidence and duration.
Of 1470 included patients, 763 (51.9%) were male, and the median (IQR) age was 77 (74-81) years. Overall, the intervention reduced postoperative delirium incidence (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77-0.98; P = .02) and percentage of days with delirium (intervention, 5.3%; control, 6.9%; P = .03). The effect was significant in patients undergoing orthopedic or abdominal surgery (odds ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.35-0.99; P = .047) but not cardiac surgery (odds ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.70-1.99; P = .54).
Thus, this multifaceted multidisciplinary prevention intervention reduced postoperative delirium occurrence and days with delirium in older patients undergoing different elective surgical procedures but not cardiac procedures. These results suggest implementing this delirium prevention program will improve care and outcomes in older patients undergoing elective general and orthopaedic procedures.
Outcomes of a Delirium Prevention Program in Older Persons After Elective Surgery A Stepped-Wedge Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial by Friederike Deeken, et al. published in the JAMA surgery.
Dr. Shravani Dali has completed her BDS from Pravara institute of medical sciences, loni. Following which she extensively worked in the healthcare sector for 2+ years. She has been actively involved in writing blogs in field of health and wellness. Currently she is pursuing her Masters of public health-health administration from Tata institute of social sciences. She can be contacted at email@example.com.