Propranolol in cardiovascular diseases: The jack of all trades
Propranolol is a competitive beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist that was developed by Sir James Black around six decades ago for the treatment of angina (1). Since then, its indications have expanded not only to several cardiovascular disorders but also non-cardiac disease processes like migraine, anxiety, portal hypertension etc.
With the advent of more cardio-selective beta-blockers in the last few decades, it is notable that propranolol still holds its unique place in the therapeutic armamentarium of every physician. The following review aims to summarise the unique pharmacokinetic profile and versatile indications of this drug that make it a relevant clinician's choice in the modern era.