Association between vitamin D and type 2 diabetes is affected by magnesium intake, study finds
China: A recent study involving nationally representative sample of adults over 20 years of age has found that magnesium intake might affect the association between vitamin D and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The results, published in the journal Frontiers in Nutrition showed that serum vitamin D level was significantly higher in non-T2D participants versus T2D participants.
"In participants with high magnesium intake, serum vitamin D concentration was inversely associated with T2D risk but not in the low magnesium intake group," the authors explained.
Previous studies have shown vitamin D concentrations to be associated with T2D risk. Also, magnesium is been reported to be associated with lower T2D risk. Moreover, magnesium is an essential cofactor for vitamin D activation. However, the effect of dietary magnesium intake on the association between vitamin D and T2D risk is understudied.
Against the above background, Weichao Huang, The Second Clinical College, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, and colleagues aimed to assess the effect modification of magnesium intake on the association between vitamin D and risk of T2D in a cross-sectional study.
For this purpose, the researchers analyzed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) continuously from 2007 to 2014, including 10,249 participants. The subjects were stratified based on magnesium intake category (low magnesium intake <267 mg/day; high magnesium intake: ≥267 mg/day). Further, the researchers evaluated the difference (interaction test) between the relationship of vitamin D with the risk of T2D among low magnesium intake participants and high magnesium intake participants.
Based on the study, the team found that the the association of serum vitamin D with the incidence of T2D appeared to differ between the low magnesium intake group and the high magnesium intake group (OR: 0.968). Furthermore, they found a evidence of interaction between vitamin D levels and magnesium intake on decreasing the incidence of T2D.
These results indicate that that magnesium intake might affect the association of serum vitamin D with the risk of T2D," wrote the authors. "Such a finding requires further randomized controlled trials to provide more evidence."
The study titled, "Dietary Magnesium Intake Affects the Association Between Serum Vitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes: A Cross-Sectional Study," was published in the journal Frontiers in Nutrition on 25 November 2021.