Magnetic Resonance Imaging may act as a Diagnostic Tool for Periodontal Disease
Researchers have recently observed that when correlated with the clinical findings an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan) may be helpful in the early detection of periodontitis. Moreover, MRI was able to depict intraosseous changes before any osseous defect had occurred, according to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology.
Imaging showed patients with positive bleeding-on-probing tests faced a greater risk of already having bone edema around those teeth, even with probing pocket depths classified as having minimal risk for periodontal disease, the authors wrote.
Monika Probst and colleagues from the Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University, Munich, Germany carried out the study to evaluate the correlation between standard clinical findings, radiographic (OPT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as to assess whether MRI is capable of providing additional information related to the severity and extent of periodontal disease.
"Osseous edema may serve as surrogate marker for early stages of periodontal disease and MRI may have possibilities for new options for detection, decision making and monitoring of periodontitis," described Dr. Monika Probst, the lead authors of the study.
The authors evaluated a total of 42 patients with generalized periodontitis, all of whom had received pre‐interventional MRI scans. These were compared to MR‐images of a periodontal healthy control group (n=34). The extent of the osseous edema, detected by MRI, was set in correlation with clinical periodontitis associated findings.
The findings drawn from the study revealed that -
a. A highly significant correlation between bone edema and clinical testings such as probing depth (p<0.0001) and bleeding on probing (p<0.0001) was revealed.
b. The edema exceeded the extent of demineralized bone.
c. Patients with a positive BOP test showed a 2.51 fold increase in risk of already having a bone edema around the respective tooth even if probing depth was ≤ 3 mm. (Logistic binary regression analysis, OR 2.51; 95% CI: 1.54‐4.11; p<0.0001).
It was hence, concluded that "MRI findings correlated with standard clinical findings, and MRI was able to depict intraosseous changes before any osseous defect had occured."