Apple cider vinegar may reduce fasting blood sugar in type 2 diabetes: Study
Australia: Supplementation with apple cider vinegar can help in reducing fasting blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, reveals a recent study in Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.
According to the study, dietary acetic acid supplementation has no adverse side effects and is well tolerated, and has the clinical potential to reduce plasma concentrations of triacylglycerol (TAG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) in people with type 2 diabetes. However, the researchers add that for confirming whether dietary acetic acid can act as an adjuvant therapeutic agent in the management of metabolic comorbidities, there is a need for high-quality, longer-term studies in larger cohorts.
Acetic acid is short-chain fatty acid that has shown biomedical potential as a dietary therapeutic agent for the management of chronic and metabolic illness comorbidities. Its consumption by human beings may improve insulin sensitivity and glucose regulation in people with cardiometabolic conditions and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, published clinical trial evidence evaluating its sustained supplementation effects on metabolic outcomes is inconsistent.
The systematic review and meta-analysis by Nicole J. Kellow, Monash University, VIC, Australia, and colleagues summarized available evidence on potential therapeutic effects of dietary acetic acid supplementation via the consumption of beverages and food sources rich in acetic acid, on metabolic and anthropometric outcomes.
The review included sixteen studies consisting of 910 participants who consumed between 750 and 3600 mg acetic acid daily in interventions lasting an average of 8 weeks.
Key findings of the study include:
- Dietary acetic acid supplementation resulted in significant reductions in TAG concentrations in overweight and obese but otherwise healthy individuals (mean difference [MD] = −20.51 mg/dL and people with type 2 diabetes (MD = −7.37 mg/dL).
- Additionally, acetic acid supplementation significantly reduced FBG levels (MD = −35.73 mg/dL) in subjects with type 2 diabetes compared with placebo and low-dose comparators.
- No other changes were seen for other metabolic or anthropometric outcomes assessed.
- Five of the 16 studies did not specify the dose of acetic acid delivered, and no studies measured blood acetate concentrations.
- Only one study controlled for background acetic acid-rich food consumption during intervention periods. Most studies had an unclear or high risk of bias.
"Supplementation with dietary acetic acid is well tolerated, has no adverse side effects, and has clinical potential to reduce plasma TAG and FBG concentrations in individuals with type 2 diabetes, and to reduce TAG levels in people who are overweight or obese. No significant effects of dietary acetic acid consumption were seen on HbA1c, HDL, or anthropometric markers," wrote the authors.
"Effect of Dietary Acetic Acid Supplementation on Plasma Glucose, Lipid Profiles, and Body Mass Index in Human Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis," is published in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics.