Reducing hyperinsulinemic diet better at preventing diabetes than cutting high GI foods: Study
USA: Reducing hyperinsulinemic and proinflammatory components of diet is more effective for the prevention of type 2 diabetes than reducing intake of foods with high glycemic index (GI), suggests a recent study.
The findings, published in the journal Diabetes Care, suggest that lowering the inflammatory and insulinemic potential of the diet is more effective for type 2 diabetes prevention than focusing on glycemic foods.
The empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) and empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH) scores assess the inflammatory and insulinemic potentials of habitual dietary patterns. This is irrespective of the macronutrient content and is based on the plasma insulin response or inflammatory biomarkers, respectively. Glycemic load (GL) and glycemic index (GI) assess postprandial glycemic potential based on the dietary carbohydrate content. Qi Jin, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, and colleagues tested the hypothesis that dietary patterns promoting hyperinsulinemia, chronic inflammation, or hyperglycemia may influence type 2 diabetes risk.
For the purpose, the researchers calculated dietary scores from baseline (1993–1998) based on food frequency questionnaires among 73,495 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative, followed through March 2019. During a median 13.3 years of follow-up, 11,009 case subjects with incident type 2 diabetes were diagnosed.
Key findings of the study include:
- Participants consuming the most hyperinsulinemic or proinflammatory dietary patterns experienced greater risk of type 2 diabetes; HRs comparing highest to lowest dietary index quintiles were: EDIH 1.49 and EDIP 1.45.
- The absolute excess incidence for the same comparison was 220 (EDIH) and 271 (EDIP) case subjects per 100,000 person-years.
- GI and GL were not associated with type 2 diabetes risk: GI 0.99 and GL 1.01.
"Our findings in this diverse cohort of postmenopausal women suggest that lowering the insulinemic and inflammatory potentials of the diet may be more effective in preventing type 2 diabetes than focusing on glycemic foods," concluded the authors.
The study titled, "Insulinemic and Inflammatory Dietary Patterns Show Enhanced Predictive Potential for Type 2 Diabetes Risk in Postmenopausal Women,' is published in the journal Diabetes Care.