Role of drug-induced sleep endoscopy in evaluation of positional vs non-positional OSA
According to recent findings, it has been noted that a higher prevalence of velum concentric collapse, oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse, and tongue base anteroposterior collapse were observed in patients with non-positional OSA and oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse was the only anatomical predictor for non-positional dependency in OSA patients, as published in the Journal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery.
Treatment modalities of OSAS are mainly composed of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), mandibular advancement devices (MAD), and upper airway surgery. CPAP is typically recommended as gold standard therapy for OSA. However, the mechanisms underlying positional and non-positional OSA are poorly understood, which might be attributable to distinct clinical characteristics and upper airway anatomy.
Hence, Ming-Chin Lan and colleagues from the Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, New Taipei City, Taiwan conducted the study to evaluate the anatomical differences between positional and non-positional OSA, and to identify the potential predictors for distinguishing between these two types of OSA.
A cross-sectional study of 230 consecutive patients with OSA undergoing DISE (Drug-induced Sleep Endoscopy) was carried out at a tertiary academic medical center. The factors correlating with positional and non-positional OSA were analyzed, including clinical characteristics, polysomnography data, and DISE findings.
The following results were observed-
a. Non-positional dependency was correlated with a higher BMI (p < 0.001), neck circumference (p < 0.001), modified Mallampati score (p = 0.003), AHI (p < 0.001), degree of velum concentric collapse (p = 0.004), degree of oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse (p < 0.001), and degree of tongue base anteroposterior collapse (p = 0.004).
b. Multivariate analysis revealed that oropharyngeal lateral wall collapse (OR = 1.90, p = 0.027) was the only anatomical factor significantly predicted non-positional dependency in OSA patients.
c. AHI (OR = 1.04, p < 0.001), although significant, made only a marginal contribution to the prediction of non-positional dependency.