Moderate caffeine intake during pregnancy may lower gestational diabetes risk: JAMA
USA: A cohort study by Hinkle N Stefanie and team revealed that Moderate intake of coffee in second trimester was associated with a lower risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), lower glucose levels at GDM screening, and more favorable cardiometabolic profile compared with no consumption.
Further Caffeine intake was not associated with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia.
The findings of the study are published in JAMA Network Open.
The findings of the study might be reassuring for pregnant women with moderate caffeine intake and should be considered in the context of published data on associations with offspring health.
An estimation of 80% of US women of reproductive age consumes caffeine daily. Caffeine usually raises blood pressure. Nevertheless, among women who were habitual consumers, increasing coffee consumption was associated with lower hypertension risk in prospective cohort studies.
The objective of the study was to determine whether caffeinated-beverage intake and plasma caffeine and paraxanthine are associated with cardiometabolic complications in pregnancy (ie, gestational diabetes [GDM], preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension [GH]).
The study included data from a longitudinal pregnancy cohort study from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons (2009-2013). The post hoc secondary analysis of 2802 pregnant women without major chronic conditions enrolled at 12 US clinical sites was completed in 2021. The final sample for caffeinated beverage analyses included 2583 women. Plasma caffeine analyses included 2529 women. Analyses of caffeine consumption and fasting cardiometabolic profiles included 319 women.
The results of the study were
• At 10 to 13 weeks, 1073 women reported consuming no caffeinated beverages, 1317 reported consuming 1 mg/d to 100 mg/d, 173 reported consuming 101 mg/d to 200 mg/d, and 20 reported consuming more than 200 mg/d.
• At 16 to 22 weeks, 599 women reported consuming no caffeinated beverages, 1734 reported consuming 1 mg/d to 100 mg/d, 186 reported consuming 101 mg/d to 200 mg/d, and 20 reported consuming more than 200 mg/d caffeinated beverages.
• Intake at 16 to 22 weeks was associated with lower GDM risk and lower glucose concentrations and lower C-reactive protein and C-peptide concentrations and favorable lipid profiles.
• Total plasma caffeine and paraxanthine at 10 to 13 weeks were inversely associated with glucose. No associations were observed with pre-eclampsia or GH.
Stefanie and the team concluded that "In this cohort study, second trimester caffeinated beverage intake within current recommendations was associated with lower GDM risk, but not preeclampsia or GH. These findings may be reassuring for women with moderate caffeine intake."
Reference: Hinkle SN, Gleason JL, Yisahak SF, et al. Assessment of Caffeine Consumption and Maternal Cardiometabolic Pregnancy Complications. JAMA Netw Open. 2021;4(11):e2133401.